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Category:Psittaciformes - BirdForum Opus

Order: Psittaciformes

Description

This order contains all 380 species of Cockatoos and Parrots, mainly found in South America, tropical Africa, Australia and South-east Asia.
They have a unique bill structure. The bill is broad-based and short. The upper mandible is deeply decurved, fitting over the shorter, upward-curved lower mandible. This allows an extensive movement of both mandibles. The tongue and jaw muscle structure is complex, diverse and highly developed. It allows great power and control in handling and investigating food items.
The legs are short, the head always proportionately broad and large but the neck short. The feet are zygodactyl with granular scales.

Many species have been trapped and used as cage-birds world-wide. Some species are heavily endangered as the trapping of wild birds still goes on in many regions.

The oldest parrot fossils are 40 million years old and have been found in southern Britain.

Taxonomy

Psittaciformes is an order in the class Aves.
The four families are sometimes merged in one, Psittacidae
The closest relatives of Parrots are the Sparrows and other perching birds (Passeriformes) according to a recent study1.


Order Psittaciformes viewedit

Family Strigopidae viewedit

Genus Nestor viewedit
N. notabilis Kea
Skull t.png N. productus
Norfolk Island Kaka Skull t.png
N. meridionalis New Zealand Kaka

Genus Strigops viewedit
S. habroptila Kakapo

Family Cacatuidae viewedit

Genus Zanda viewedit
Z. funerea Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo
Z. latirostris Carnaby's Black Cockatoo
Z. baudinii Baudin's Black Cockatoo

Genus Calyptorhynchus viewedit
C. banksii Red-tailed Black Cockatoo
C. lathami Glossy Black Cockatoo

Genus Nymphicus viewedit
N. hollandicus Cockatiel

Genus Probosciger viewedit
P. aterrimus Palm Cockatoo

Genus Callocephalon viewedit
C. fimbriatum Gang-gang Cockatoo

Genus Eolophus viewedit
E. roseicapilla Galah

Genus Cacatua viewedit
C. leadbeateri Pink Cockatoo
C. haematuropygia Philippine Cockatoo
C. goffiniana Tanimbar Corella
C. ducorpsii Solomons Cockatoo
C. pastinator Western Corella
C. sanguinea Little Corella
C. tenuirostris Long-billed Corella
C. alba White Cockatoo
C. ophthalmica Blue-eyed Cockatoo
C. moluccensis Salmon-crested Cockatoo
C. sulphurea Yellow-crested Cockatoo
C. citrinocristata Citron-crested Cockatoo
C. galerita Sulphur-crested Cockatoo

Family Psittaculidae viewedit

Genus Psittrichas viewedit
P. fulgidus Pesquet's Parrot

Genus Coracopsis viewedit
C. vasa Greater Vasa Parrot
C. nigra Lesser Vasa Parrot
C. sibilans Comoro Black Parrot
C. barklyi Seychelles Black Parrot

Genus Micropsitta viewedit
M. keiensis Yellow-capped Pygmy Parrot
M. geelvinkiana Geelvink Pygmy Parrot
M. pusio Buff-faced Pygmy Parrot
M. bruijnii Red-breasted Pygmy Parrot
M. meeki Meek's Pygmy Parrot
M. finschii Finsch's Pygmy Parrot

Genus Polytelis viewedit
P. swainsonii Superb Parrot
P. anthopeplus Regent Parrot
P. alexandrae Princess Parrot

Genus Alisterus viewedit
A. scapularis Australian King Parrot
A. amboinensis Moluccan King Parrot
A. chloropterus Papuan King Parrot

Genus Aprosmictus viewedit
A. jonquillaceus Jonquil Parrot
A. erythropterus Red-winged Parrot

Genus Prioniturus viewedit
P. mada Buru Racquet-tail
P. platurus Golden-mantled Racquet-tail
P. waterstradti Mindanao Racquet-tail
P. montanus Luzon Racquet-tail
P. platenae Blue-headed Racquet-tail
P. mindorensis Mindoro Racquet-tail
P. verticalis Blue-winged Racquet-tail
P. flavicans Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail
P. luconensis Green Racquet-tail
P. discurus Blue-crowned Racquet-tail

Genus Eclectus viewedit
E. roratus Moluccan Eclectus
E. cornelia Sumba Eclectus
E. riedeli Tanimbar Eclectus
E. polychloros Papuan Eclectus
Skull t.png E. infectus
Oceanic Eclectus Skull t.png

Genus Geoffroyus viewedit
G. geoffroyi Red-cheeked Parrot
G. simplex Blue-collared Parrot
G. heteroclitus Singing Parrot

Genus Psittinus viewedit
P. cyanurus Blue-rumped Parrot

Genus Mascarinus viewedit
Skull t.png M. mascarin
Mascarene Parrot Skull t.png

Genus Psittacula viewedit
Skull t.png P. bensoni
Mascarene Grey Parakeet Skull t.png
P. eupatria Alexandrine Parakeet
Skull t.png P. wardi
Seychelles Parakeet Skull t.png
P. krameri Rose-ringed Parakeet
P. eques Echo Parakeet
P. himalayana Slaty-headed Parakeet
P. finschii Grey-headed Parakeet
P. cyanocephala Plum-headed Parakeet
P. roseata Blossom-headed Parakeet
P. columboides Malabar Parakeet
P. calthrapae Layard's Parakeet
P. derbiana Lord Derby's Parakeet
P. alexandri Red-breasted Parakeet
P. caniceps Nicobar Parakeet
Skull t.png P. exsul
Newton's Parakeet Skull t.png
P. longicauda Long-tailed Parakeet

Genus Lophopsittacus viewedit
Skull t.png L. bensoni
Mascarene Grey Parakeet Skull t.png

Genus Psittacella viewedit
P. picta Painted Tiger Parrot
P. brehmii Brehm's Tiger Parrot
P. modesta Modest Tiger Parrot
P. madaraszi Madarasz's Tiger Parrot

Genus Tanygnathus viewedit
T. gramineus Black-lored Parrot
T. megalorynchos Great-billed Parrot
T. lucionensis Blue-naped Parrot
T. sumatranus Blue-backed Parrot

Genus Pezoporus viewedit
P. wallicus Ground Parrot
P. occidentalis Night Parrot

Genus Neopsephotus viewedit
N. bourkii Bourke's Parrot

Genus Neophema viewedit
N. chrysostoma Blue-winged Parrot
N. elegans Elegant Parrot
N. petrophila Rock Parrot
N. chrysogaster Orange-bellied Parrot
N. pulchella Turquoise Parrot
N. splendida Scarlet-chested Parrot

Genus Lathamus viewedit
L. discolor Swift Parrot

Genus Prosopeia viewedit
P. splendens Crimson Shining Parrot
P. tabuensis Red Shining Parrot
P. personata Masked Shining Parrot

Genus Eunymphicus viewedit
E. cornutus Horned Parakeet
E. uvaeensis Ouvea Parakeet

Genus Cyanoramphus viewedit
Skull t.png C. ulietanus
Raiatea Parakeet Skull t.png
Skull t.png C. zealandicus
Black-fronted Parakeet Skull t.png
C. unicolor Antipodes Parakeet
C. novaezelandiae Red-crowned Parakeet
C. hochstetteri Reischek's Parakeet
C. saisseti New Caledonian Parakeet
C. cookii Norfolk Island Parakeet
C. auriceps Yellow-crowned Parakeet
C. forbesi Chatham Parakeet
C. malherbi Malherbe's Parakeet

Genus Barnardius viewedit
B. zonarius Australian Ringneck

Genus Platycercus viewedit
P. caledonicus Green Rosella
P. elegans Crimson Rosella
P. venustus Northern Rosella
P. eximius Eastern Rosella
P. adscitus Pale-headed Rosella
P. icterotis Western Rosella

Genus Northiella viewedit
N. haematogaster Greater Bluebonnet
N. narethae Naretha Bluebonnet

Genus Psephotus viewedit
P. haematonotus Red-rumped Parrot

Genus Psephotellus viewedit
P. varius Mulga Parrot
P. dissimilis Hooded Parrot
P. chrysopterygius Golden-shouldered Parrot
Skull t.png P. pulcherrimus
Paradise Parrot Skull t.png

Genus Purpureicephalus viewedit
P. spurius Red-capped Parrot

Genus Cyclopsitta viewedit
C. melanogenia Dusky-cheeked Fig Parrot
C. gulielmitertii Blue-fronted Fig Parrot
C. nigrifrons Black-fronted Fig Parrot
C. diophthalma Double-eyed Fig Parrot

Genus Psittaculirostris viewedit
P. desmarestii Large Fig Parrot
P. edwardsii Edwards's Fig Parrot
P. salvadorii Salvadori's Fig Parrot

Genus Bolbopsittacus viewedit
B. lunulatus Guaiabero

Genus Melopsittacus viewedit
M. undulatus Budgerigar

Genus Oreopsittacus viewedit
O. arfaki Plum-faced Lorikeet

Genus Charminetta viewedit
C. wilhelminae Pygmy Lorikeet

Genus Hypocharmosyna viewedit
H. rubronotata Red-fronted Lorikeet
H. placentis Red-flanked Lorikeet

Genus Charmosynopsis viewedit
C. toxopei Blue-fronted Lorikeet
C. pulchella Fairy Lorikeet

Genus Synorhacma viewedit
S. multistriata Striated Lorikeet

Genus Charmosyna viewedit
C. josefinae Josephine's Lorikeet
C. papou Papuan Lorikeet

Genus Charmosynoides viewedit
C. margarethae Duchess Lorikeet

Genus Vini viewedit
V. meeki Meek's Lorikeet
V. diadema New Caledonian Lorikeet
V. rubrigularis Red-chinned Lorikeet
V. palmarum Palm Lorikeet
V. amabilis Red-throated Lorikeet
V. solitarius Collared Lory
V. australis Blue-crowned Lorikeet
V. ultramarina Ultramarine Lorikeet
V. stepheni Stephen's Lorikeet
V. kuhlii Kuhl's Lorikeet
V. peruviana Blue Lorikeet

Genus Neopsittacus viewedit
N. musschenbroekii Yellow-billed Lorikeet
N. pullicauda Orange-billed Lorikeet

Genus Lorius viewedit
L. garrulus Chattering Lory
L. hypoinochrous Purple-bellied Lory
L. domicella Purple-naped Lory
L. lory Black-capped Lory
L. albidinucha White-naped Lory
L. chlorocercus Yellow-bibbed Lory

Genus Psitteuteles viewedit
P. versicolor Varied Lorikeet

Genus Parvipsitta viewedit
P. pusilla Little Lorikeet
P. porphyrocephala Purple-crowned Lorikeet

Genus Pseudeos viewedit
P. fuscata Dusky Lory
P. cardinalis Cardinal Lory

Genus Chalcopsitta viewedit
C. duivenbodei Brown Lory
C. atra Black Lory
C. scintillata Yellow-streaked Lory

Genus Glossoptilus viewedit
G. goldiei Goldie's Lorikeet

Genus Glossopsitta viewedit
G. concinna Musk Lorikeet

Genus Saudareos viewedit
S. johnstoniae Mindanao Lorikeet
S. iris Iris Lorikeet
S. ornata Ornate Lorikeet
S. meyeri Yellow-cheeked Lorikeet
S. flavoviridis Sula Lorikeet

Genus Eos viewedit
E. reticulata Blue-streaked Lory
E. semilarvata Blue-eared Lory
E. bornea Red Lory
E. cyanogenia Black-winged Lory
E. histrio Red-and-blue Lory
E. squamata Violet-necked Lory

Genus Trichoglossus viewedit
T. rubiginosus Pohnpei Lorikeet
T. chlorolepidotus Scaly-breasted Lorikeet
T. haematodus Coconut Lorikeet
T. moluccanus Rainbow Lorikeet
T. rubritorquis Red-collared Lorikeet
T. euteles Olive-headed Lorikeet
T. capistratus Marigold Lorikeet
T. weberi Leaf Lorikeet
T. forsteni Sunset Lorikeet

Genus Loriculus viewedit
L. vernalis Vernal Hanging Parrot
L. beryllinus Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot
L. pilippensis Philippine Hanging Parrot
L. camiguinensis Camiguin Hanging Parrot
L. galgulus Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot
L. stigmatus Sulawesi Hanging Parrot
L. sclateri Sula Hanging Parrot
L. amabilis Moluccan Hanging Parrot
L. catamene Sangihe Hanging Parrot
L. aurantiifrons Orange-fronted Hanging Parrot
L. tener Green-fronted Hanging Parrot
L. exilis Pygmy Hanging Parrot
L. pusillus Yellow-throated Hanging Parrot
L. flosculus Wallace's Hanging Parrot

Genus Agapornis viewedit
A. swindernianus Black-collared Lovebird
A. canus Grey-headed Lovebird
A. pullarius Red-headed Lovebird
A. taranta Black-winged Lovebird
A. roseicollis Rosy-faced Lovebird
A. fischeri Fischer's Lovebird
A. personatus Yellow-collared Lovebird
A. lilianae Lilian's Lovebird
A. nigrigenis Black-cheeked Lovebird

Family Psittacidae viewedit

Genus Psittacus viewedit
P. erithacus Grey Parrot

Genus Poicephalus viewedit
P. fuscicollis Brown-necked Parrot
P. robustus Cape Parrot
P. gulielmi Red-fronted Parrot
P. meyeri Meyer's Parrot
P. rueppellii Rüppell's Parrot
P. cryptoxanthus Brown-headed Parrot
P. crassus Niam-niam Parrot
P. rufiventris Red-bellied Parrot
P. senegalus Senegal Parrot
P. flavifrons Yellow-fronted Parrot

Genus Touit viewedit
T. batavicus Lilac-tailed Parrotlet
T. huetii Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet
T. costaricensis Red-fronted Parrotlet
T. dilectissimus Blue-fronted Parrotlet
T. purpuratus Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet
T. melanonotus Brown-backed Parrotlet
T. surdus Golden-tailed Parrotlet
T. stictopterus Spot-winged Parrotlet

Genus Psilopsiagon viewedit
P. aymara Gray-hooded Parakeet
P. aurifrons Mountain Parakeet

Genus Bolborhynchus viewedit
B. lineola Barred Parakeet
B. ferrugineifrons Rufous-fronted Parakeet
B. orbygnesius Andean Parakeet

Genus Nannopsittaca viewedit
N. panychlora Tepui Parrotlet
N. dachilleae Amazonian Parrotlet

Genus Myiopsitta viewedit
M. monachus Monk Parakeet

Genus Brotogeris viewedit
B. sanctithomae Tui Parakeet
B. tirica Plain Parakeet
B. versicolurus White-winged Parakeet
B. chiriri Yellow-chevroned Parakeet
B. pyrrhoptera Gray-cheeked Parakeet
B. jugularis Orange-chinned Parakeet
B. cyanoptera Cobalt-winged Parakeet
B. chrysoptera Golden-winged Parakeet

Genus Pionopsitta viewedit
P. pileata Pileated Parrot

Genus Triclaria viewedit
T. malachitacea Blue-bellied Parrot

Genus Hapalopsittaca viewedit
H. amazonina Rusty-faced Parrot
H. fuertesi Indigo-winged Parrot
H. pyrrhops Red-faced Parrot
H. melanotis Black-winged Parrot

Genus Pyrilia viewedit
P. haematotis Brown-hooded Parrot
P. pulchra Rose-faced Parrot
P. pyrilia Saffron-headed Parrot
P. barrabandi Orange-cheeked Parrot
P. caica Caica Parrot
P. aurantiocephala Bald Parrot
P. vulturina Vulturine Parrot

Genus Pionus viewedit
P. fuscus Dusky Parrot
P. sordidus Red-billed Parrot
P. maximiliani Scaly-headed Parrot
P. tumultuosus Speckle-faced Parrot
P. menstruus Blue-headed Parrot
P. senilis White-crowned Parrot
P. chalcopterus Bronze-winged Parrot

Genus Graydidascalus viewedit
G. brachyurus Short-tailed Parrot

Genus Alipiopsitta viewedit
A. xanthops Yellow-faced Parrot

Genus Amazona viewedit
A. festiva Festive Parrot
A. vinacea Vinaceous Parrot
A. tucumana Tucuman Parrot
A. pretrei Red-spectacled Parrot
A. viridigenalis Red-crowned Parrot
A. finschi Lilac-crowned Parrot
A. autumnalis Red-lored Parrot
A. dufresniana Blue-cheeked Parrot
A. rhodocorytha Red-browed Parrot
A. arausiaca Red-necked Parrot
A. versicolor St. Lucia Parrot
A. auropalliata Yellow-naped Parrot
A. oratrix Yellow-headed Parrot
A. ochrocephala Yellow-crowned Parrot
A. barbadensis Yellow-shouldered Parrot
A. aestiva Turquoise-fronted Parrot
A. agilis Black-billed Parrot
A. albifrons White-fronted Parrot
A. xantholora Yellow-lored Parrot
A. collaria Yellow-billed Parrot
A. leucocephala Cuban Parrot
A. ventralis Hispaniolan Parrot
A. vittata Puerto Rican Parrot
A. farinosa Mealy Parrot
A. kawalli Kawall's Parrot
A. imperialis Imperial Parrot
A. brasiliensis Red-tailed Parrot
A. guildingii St. Vincent Parrot
A. amazonica Orange-winged Parrot
A. mercenarius Scaly-naped Parrot

Genus Forpus viewedit
F. modestus Dusky-billed Parrotlet
F. cyanopygius Mexican Parrotlet
F. spengeli Turquoise-winged Parrotlet
F. crassirostris Riparian Parrotlet
F. xanthopterygius Cobalt-rumped Parrotlet
F. passerinus Green-rumped Parrotlet
F. conspicillatus Spectacled Parrotlet
F. coelestis Pacific Parrotlet
F. xanthops Yellow-faced Parrotlet

Genus Pionites viewedit
P. melanocephalus Black-headed Parrot
P. leucogaster White-bellied Parrot

Genus Deroptyus viewedit
D. accipitrinus Red-fan Parrot

Genus Pyrrhura viewedit
P. cruentata Ochre-marked Parakeet
P. devillei Blaze-winged Parakeet
P. frontalis Maroon-bellied Parakeet
P. lepida Pearly Parakeet
P. perlata Crimson-bellied Parakeet
P. molinae Green-cheeked Parakeet
P. pfrimeri Pfrimer's Parakeet
P. griseipectus Gray-breasted Parakeet
P. leucotis Maroon-faced Parakeet
P. picta Painted Parakeet
P. amazonum Santarem Parakeet
P. lucianii Bonaparte's Parakeet
P. roseifrons Rose-fronted Parakeet
P. viridicata Santa Marta Parakeet
P. egregia Fiery-shouldered Parakeet
P. melanura Maroon-tailed Parakeet
P. orcesi El Oro Parakeet
P. rupicola Black-capped Parakeet
P. albipectus White-necked Parakeet
P. calliptera Brown-breasted Parakeet
P. hoematotis Red-eared Parakeet
P. rhodocephala Rose-headed Parakeet
P. hoffmanni Sulphur-winged Parakeet

Genus Enicognathus viewedit
E. ferrugineus Austral Parakeet
E. leptorhynchus Slender-billed Parakeet

Genus Cyanoliseus viewedit
C. patagonus Burrowing Parakeet

Genus Anodorhynchus viewedit
A. hyacinthinus Hyacinth Macaw
A. glaucus Glaucous Macaw
A. leari Indigo Macaw

Genus Rhynchopsitta viewedit
R. pachyrhyncha Thick-billed Parrot
R. terrisi Maroon-fronted Parrot

Genus Eupsittula viewedit
E. nana Olive-throated Parakeet
E. canicularis Orange-fronted Parakeet
E. aurea Peach-fronted Parakeet
E. pertinax Brown-throated Parakeet
E. cactorum Cactus Parakeet

Genus Conuropsis viewedit
Skull t.png C. carolinensis
Carolina Parakeet Skull t.png

Genus Aratinga viewedit
A. weddellii Dusky-headed Parakeet
A. nenday Nanday Parakeet
A. solstitialis Sun Parakeet
A. maculata Sulphur-breasted Parakeet
A. jandaya Jandaya Parakeet
A. auricapillus Golden-capped Parakeet

Genus Cyanopsitta viewedit
C. spixii Spix's Macaw

Genus Orthopsittaca viewedit
O. manilatus Red-bellied Macaw

Genus Primolius viewedit
P. maracana Blue-winged Macaw
P. couloni Blue-headed Macaw
P. auricollis Yellow-collared Macaw

Genus Ara viewedit
A. ararauna Blue-and-yellow Macaw
A. glaucogularis Blue-throated Macaw
A. severus Chestnut-fronted Macaw
Skull t.png A. tricolor
Cuban Macaw Skull t.png
A. rubrogenys Red-fronted Macaw
A. militaris Military Macaw
A. ambiguus Great Green Macaw
A. macao Scarlet Macaw
A. chloropterus Red-and-green Macaw

Genus Leptosittaca viewedit
L. branickii Golden-plumed Parakeet

Genus Ognorhynchus viewedit
O. icterotis Yellow-eared Parrot

Genus Guaruba viewedit
G. guarouba Golden Parakeet

Genus Thectocercus viewedit
T. acuticaudatus Blue-crowned Parakeet

Genus Diopsittaca viewedit
D. nobilis Red-shouldered Macaw

Genus Psittacara viewedit
P. holochlorus Green Parakeet
P. brevipes Socorro Parakeet
P. strenuus Pacific Parakeet
P. finschi Crimson-fronted Parakeet
P. wagleri Scarlet-fronted Parakeet
P. mitratus Mitred Parakeet
P. erythrogenys Red-masked Parakeet
P. leucophthalmus White-eyed Parakeet
P. euops Cuban Parakeet
P. chloropterus Hispaniolan Parakeet
Skull t.png P. maugei
Puerto Rican Parakeet Skull t.png

References

  1. Clements, JF. 2008. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to December 2008. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019.
  2. Del Hoyo, J, A Elliot, and J Sargatal, eds. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8487334221
  3. Hackett et al. (2008) A phylogenetic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320:1763-1768.

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Subcategories

This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.

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