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White Ibis - BirdForum Opus

Revision as of 21:30, 18 January 2023 by Deliatodd-18346 (talk | contribs) (→‎External Links: GSearch expanded)

Alternative name: American White Ibis to distinguish it from the Australian White Ibis.

Breeding Adult
Photo © by Steve G
Southern Dunes, Polk County, Florida, USA, July 2005
Eudocimus albus


Non-breeding Adult
Photo © by STEFFRO1
Huntington Beach State Park, South Carolina, October 2015

56–71 cm (22-27¾) long; 95 cm wingspan

  • All-white plumage
  • Black wingtips (visible in flight)
  • Reddish bills (extending into the face on breeding birds)
  • Reddish legs
  • Non-breeding birds show a pink to red face

Juveniles are largely brown with duller bare parts

Similar Species

Juveniles differ from the Glossy and White-faced Ibises by white underparts and rumps.


Southern United States south through Central America and the Greater Antilles to northwestern South America.


Photo © by Stanley Jones
Laguna Vista, Cameron County, Texas, USA, October 2016

This bird hybridizes with the Scarlet Ibis, and they are sometimes considered conspecific.


Two subspecies are recognized[1].


Photo © by IDidiot
Central Gulf Coast, Florida, USA,
16 March 2021

Their favoured habitat is marshy wetlands and coastal pools. They also occur on mowed grass and have become common in some city parks.


Photo © by Stanley Jones
Brazos Bend State Park, Texas, USA, 20 April 2021


In flight the neck and legs are outstretched and are often seen in long, loose lines.


Monogomous and colonial, usually nesting in mixed colonies with other wading species.
They builds a stick nest in trees, bushes, or over water. The clutch consists of 2 to 5 eggs.


They use the long, curved bill to probe in mud for a variety of fish, frogs and insects.


Call: the male advertises his presence with a hunk-hunk-hunk-hunk. The female squeals.
The birds often give a soft, grunting croo, croo, croo when foraging.


Click on photo for larger image


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, J. A. Gerbracht, D. Lepage, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2021. The eBird/Clements checklist of Birds of the World: v2021. Downloaded from https://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Keith Bildstein, White Ibis: Wetland Wanderer (Smithsonian: 1993), ISBN 1560982233
  3. Heath, J. A., P. C. Frederick, J. A. Kushlan, and K. L. Bildstein (2020). White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.whiibi.01
  4. Wikipedia

Recommended Citation

External Links

GSearch checked for 2020 platform.1