Alternative name: American White Ibis to distinguish it from the Australian White Ibis.
- Eudocimus albus
56–71 cm (22-27¾) long; 95 cm wingspan
- All-white plumage
- Black wingtips (visible in flight)
- Reddish bills (extending into the face on breeding birds)
- Reddish legs
- Non-breeding birds show a pink to red face
Juveniles are largely brown with duller bare parts
Two subspecies are recognized.
- E. a. albus - coastal and lowlands areas of western Mexico and the southeastern United States south to Costa Rica and east to the Greater Antilles.
- E. a. ramobustorum - Panama and northern South America: Pacific coast from Colombia south to extreme northwestern Peru (Tumbes); coastal northern Colombia and northern Venezuela; and llanos of eastern Colombia and western Venezuela.
Their favoured habitat is marshy wetlands and coastal pools. They also occur on mowed grass and have become common in some city parks.
In flight the neck and legs are outstretched and are often seen in long, loose lines.
Monogomous and colonial, usually nesting in mixed colonies with other wading species.
They builds a stick nest in trees, bushes, or over water. The clutch consists of 2 to 5 eggs.
They use the long, curved bill to probe in mud for a variety of fish, frogs and insects.
Call: the male advertises his presence with a hunk-hunk-hunk-hunk. The female squeals.
The birds often give a soft, grunting croo, croo, croo when foraging.
Click on photo for larger image
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, J. A. Gerbracht, D. Lepage, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2021. The eBird/Clements checklist of Birds of the World: v2021. Downloaded from https://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
- Keith Bildstein, White Ibis: Wetland Wanderer (Smithsonian: 1993), ISBN 1560982233
- Heath, J. A., P. C. Frederick, J. A. Kushlan, and K. L. Bildstein (2020). White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.whiibi.01
- BirdForum Opus contributors. (2023) White Ibis. In: BirdForum, the forum for wild birds and birding. Retrieved 4 December 2023 from https://www.birdforum.net/opus/White_Ibis
GSearch checked for 2020 platform.1