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Photo © by RHAYES
Lincolnshire, UK, June 2006
Lullula arborea


15 cm (6 in)

  • Brown upperparts
  • Pale underparts
  • White supercilium meeting on the nape
  • Crest on crown (sometimes concealed)
  • White-tipped tail
  • Short tail
  • Short broad wings

The black and white marks on the alula are a good fieldmark.


Europe including European part of Russia, Caucasus, the Middle East, and the mountains of north Africa north of the Sahara.



Two subspecies are recognized1:

  • L. a. arborea:
  • L. a. arborea:

Some authorities include a third subspecies familiaris2.


Open heath with some trees, and other open woodlands, especially those with pines and light soil.



A monogamous species; they are solitary and territorial. The clutch consists of 6 eggs which are laid in a ground nest.


The diet consists of seeds and other vegetable matter during the winter months. They mostly rely on insects in the breeding season.


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved June 2017)
  3. Avibase
  4. Wikipedia

Recommended Citation

External Links

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