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Pacific Kingfisher - BirdForum Opus

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Subspecies eximius
Photo by peterday
Kadavu Island, Fiji, September 2015
Todiramphus sacer


  • Green or bluish crown
  • Darkish eyestripe extending as small line to neck
  • Broad white neck collar
  • Blue-green upperparts, wings and tail
  • White to rufous underparts
  • Black bill with horn-coloured base of lower mandible

The various subspecies differ in colour and in extend of crown.


Islands in the South Pacific.


Subspecies vitiensis
Photo by Ian_M
Bouma Falls, Taveuni, Fiji, June 2002

This species belongs to the Collared Kingfisher complex and was formerly considered conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Mariana Kingfisher, Colonist Kingfisher, Melanesian Kingfisher and Torresian Kingfisher.


22 subspecies recognized:

  • T. s. torresianus: Torres Group (Toga, Loh and Hiu)
  • T. s. santoensis: Banks Group to Espíritu Santo and Malo (northern Vanuatu)
  • T. s. juliae: Northern and central Vanuatu (Maewo and Aoba islands to Efate)
  • T. s. erromangae: Erromango Island (southern Vanuatu)
  • T. s. tannensis: Tanna Island (southern Vanuatu)
  • T. s. sacer: Tonga
  • T. s. pealei: Tutuila Island (American Samoa)
  • T. s. manuae: American Samoa (Ofu, Olosega and Tau)
  • T. s. mala: Malaita (eastern [Solomon Islands]])
  • T. s. sororum: Southern Solomon Islands (Malaupaina and Malaulalo)
  • T. s. pavuvu: Pavuvu Island (Russel Group in central Solomon Islands)
  • T. s. solomonis: Solomon Islands (Uki Ni Masi, Makira and Santa Anna)
  • T. s. amoenus: Solomon Islands (Rennell and Bellona)
  • T. s. brachyurus: Reef Islands (Fenualoa and Lomlon)
  • T. s. vicina: Duff Group (eastern Solomon Islands)
  • T. s. ornatus: Eastern Solomon Islands (Santa Cruz and Tinakula)
  • T. s. utupuae: Utupua Island (Santa Cruz Group in eastern Solomon Islands)
  • T. s. melanodera: Vanikolo Island (Santa Cruz Group in eastern Solomon Islands)
  • T. s. marinus: Lau Archipelago (eastern Fiji)
  • T. s. vitiensis: Fiji (Ngau, Ovalau, Koro, Viti Levu, Vanua Levu and Taveuni)
  • T. s. eximius: Fiji (Kandavu, Ono and Vanua Kula)
  • T. s. regina:Futuna (Wallis and Futuna, central Polynesia)




  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2015. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015, with updates to August 2015. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Gill, F and D Donsker (Eds). 2015. IOC World Bird Names (version 5.4). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/.
  3. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved October 2015)

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