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Orange-spotted Bulbul - BirdForum Opus

Photo by James Eaton
Ijen Plateau, Java, Indonesia, July 2005
Pycnonotus bimaculatus


20 cm (7¾ in). A dark, uncrested bulbul with a rounded tail.

  • Blackish-brown crown
  • Mostly dark head with bright orange supraloral tuft and a smaller yellow-orange spot over the eye
  • Large pale yellow ear-covert patch with greenish tinge
  • Plain brown upperparts, dark brown wings prominently fringed bright olive
  • Dark brown tail with bright olive fringes and white tipps on outer feathers
  • Dark brown throat and upper breast, more mottled on lower breast
  • Creamy white belly
  • Bright yellow vent and undertail-coverts
  • Black bill, black or dark grey legs

Sexes similar. Juveniles are duller and have a brown iris (red-brown or dark brown in adults).

Similar species

Aceh Bulbul with grey-brown lower breast and belly and smaller bill

Photo by horokuru
Gede National Park, Java, Indonesia, May 2008


Found on Sumatra, Java and Bali in Indonesia.
Locally common, rare in northern Sumatra.



Two subspecies recognized[1]:

  • P. b. barat in the mountains of southwest Sumatra and western and central Java
  • P. b. bimaculatus in the mountains of eastern Java and Bali

Aceh Bulbul was recently split from Orange-spotted Bulbul


At edges of primary forest, in tall second growth and in scrub and elfin forest near the summit of mountains.
Occurs from 800 to 3000 m.



Feeds on fruits. Takes also insects. Forages mainly in lower and middle storeys.


Breeding season throughout the year, a peak in May in Java. The nest is a robust, cup-shaped structure, placed 1 to 5 meters above the ground in a tree or in shrub. Lays 2 eggs, sometimes 3.


A resident species. Can form larger groups in non-breeding season.


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2019. The eBird/Clements Checklist of Birds of the World: v2019. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Gill, F and D Donsker (Eds). 2016. IOC World Bird Names (version 6.3). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/.
  3. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved July 2016)

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