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Audubon's Oriole - BirdForum Opus

Photo © by Glen Tepke
Salineno, Texas, March 2005
Icterus graduacauda



  • Black head, wings and tail
  • White edges to wing feathers
  • Yellow back, rump, breast, belly and shoulder
  • Pointed bill


Photo © by Raul Padilla
Huautla, Mexico, April 2010

Found in the extreme tip of southeastern Texas and along the eastern Mexican coast south to Guatemala. Accidental vagrant to Puerto Rico.



This is a polytypic species consisting of four subspecies[1]:

  • I. g. graduacauda:(richardsoni)
  • I. g. audubonii:
  • Southern Texas (lower Rio Grande Valley) and eastern Mexico (Tamaulipas)
  • I. g. nayaritensis:
  • West-central Mexico (southern Nayarit to western Jalisco, northern Colima and southern Michoacán)
  • I. g. dickeyae:
  • Mountains of south-western Mexico (Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero)


Mesquite and riparian woodlands. Thorn scrub thicket



Long green grasses are woven into a cup shaped nest, attached at the top to leafy twigs near the trunk. Three to five eggs are laid and are incubated by the female. The young fledge 11 days after hatching. Sometimes there are two broods.

The nests are often parasitized by the Bronzed Cowbird.


The diet consists mostly of fruit and insects.


  1. Clements, JF. 2011. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to August 2011. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
  2. USGS
  3. BF Member observations

Recommended Citation

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