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Spectacled Monarch - BirdForum Opus

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Photo by Neil Fifer
Symposiachrus trivirgatus

Monarcha trivirgatus
Includes Moluccan Monarch


Blue-grey upperparts, black face mask that extends across both eyes, rufous breast, white underparts, black tail with white outer tips. Immature birds lack the black face and have a grey throat.


Coastal north-eastern and eastern Australia, Papua New Guinea, the Moluccas and Timor.


Formerly placed in genus Monarcha. Moluccan subspecies bimaculatus, diadematus and nigrimentum may be split as "Moluccan Spectacled Monarch", S. bimaculatus [2] based on plumage differences and molecular evidence.


There are 9 subspecies [1], many of which may represent different species [2]:

  • S. t. bimaculatus: "Moluccan Spectacled Monarch". Morotai, Halmahera and Bacan (Moluccas)
  • S. t. diadematus: "Moluccan Spectacled Monarch". Obi and Bisa (Moluccas)
  • S. t. nigrimentum: "Moluccan Spectacled Monarch". Seram and Ambon (Moluccas)
  • S. t. wellsi: Seram Laut and Watubela Islands
  • S. t. trivirgatus: Lesser Sundas
  • S. t. albiventris: northeastern Australia: Torres Straits islands, and coastal northeastern Queensland
  • S. t. melanopterus: Southeastern Islands of southeastern New Guinea
  • S. t. melanorrhous: East Queensland, Australia
  • S. t. gouldii: breeds eastern Australia; wintering to southern New Guinea and Torres Strait Islands


Thick understorey in rainforests, wet gullies and waterside vegetation, as well as mangroves.


The diet includes insects.

It builds a small cup nest of fine bark, plant fibres, moss and spider web in a tree fork or in hanging vines, often near water.


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, T. A. Fredericks, J. A. Gerbracht, D. Lepage, S. M. Billerman, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2022. The eBird/Clements checklist of Birds of the World: v2022. Downloaded from https://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Eaton, J.A.. van Balen, B. Brickle, N.W., B Rheindk F.E. (2021). Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago, Greater Sundas and Wallacea. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona. Second Edition

External Links

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