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Icterus mesomelas
Photo © by edenwatcher
Sozoranga, Ecuador, March 2006

Identification

20·5–23·5 cm (8-9¼ in).

  • Black face, neck, mantle, back, wings and central tail feathers
  • Golden yellow remaining areas of plumage

Distribution

Southeastern Mexico to northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Peru.

Taxonomy

Subspecies carrikeri
Photo © by Stanley Jones
Ammo Dump Ponds, Colón Province, Panama, February 2011

Subspecies

There are five subspecies[1]:

  • I. m. mesomelas in tropical southeast Mexico (Veracruz and Oaxaca) to Belize and Honduras - yellow fringes to the tertials
  • I. m. salvinii in the Caribbean lowlands of Nicaragua to northwestern Panama - no yellow fringes to the tertials ; more orange than the nominate race
  • I. m. carrikeri from Panama to northern and western Colombia and northwestern Venezuela - like salvinii, - less orange and smaller-billed
  • I. m. taczanowskii in tropical western Ecuador and northwestern Peru - white fringes to the tertials
  • I. m. xantholemus in Ecuador (probable immature taczanowskii or unknown hybrid)

Habitat

Thickets, woodlands, open areas with trees near water, in lowlands.

Behaviour

Diet

The diet consists mainly of insects, and arthropods such as centipedes; they also eat some nectar and fruits.

Breeding

The construct a shallow basket nes in thorny scrub by a stream. The clutch consists of 3 dark-blotched white eggs; they are incubated for 13 days with a further 14 days to fledging.

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

}#Avibase

  1. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved April 2017)

Recommended Citation

External Links

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