Alternative names: Tristram's Grackle; Tristram's Red-winged Starling
- Onychognathus tristramii
25cm. A fairly large, dark starling with a medium-length tail. The only red-winged Starling in its range.
- Glossy black plumage
- Reddish-brown primaries
- Dark brown eye
- Blackish bill
- Black legs
Females have a grey head with dark streaks on nape and lower throat. Juveniles resemble males but are less glossy.
Rocky cliff faces. Now also in urban areas.
They usually gather in flocks and are quite noisy. Forms big roosts with several hundreds of birds outside breeding-season.
The diet includes fruit and invertebrates; they groom Nubian Ibex and domestic livestock for parasites.
Breeding season March to June in Israel. A monogamous species, sometimes forming loose colonies. Their nests are mainly in crevices or rock surfaces and they occur from sea level to 3000m. Lays 2 - 4 eggs.
A resident species, sometimes partly nomadic.
- Clements, JF. 2010. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to December 2010. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/Clements%206.5.xls/view
- Del Hoyo, J, A Elliott, and D Christie, eds. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8496553507
- BirdForum Opus contributors. (2023) Tristram's Starling. In: BirdForum, the forum for wild birds and birding. Retrieved 28 November 2023 from https://www.birdforum.net/opus/Tristram%27s_Starling
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